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      Indigenous Struggle against Colonialism

      Howard Adams (Métis)

      Revolutionary Métis Marxist scholar and professor Howard Adams grew up in a Métis community in Saskatchewan. He was a leader in the struggle for Indigenous rights, self-determination, and socialism.

      Excerpt from Chapter 12: "Schooling the Redman" in Prison Grass, 1975.

      “One of the most important phenomena in the school system is the colonization of students be the persons of authority who exercise their power arbitrarily and oppressively. Their power is derived from the authority of their position and by the grading that they give children. Their oppressive authority is a source of motivation of student behaviour. Much of the learning that occurs involves manipulation by educators acting according to their assumptions about the authoritarian purposes of education. What is called teaching is in reality eliciting appropriate behaviour from students. “

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